If in no one pays much attention when Rome bangs its fist and says "This is infallible", then what can we conclude?
We can conclude that we are witnessing what may be the biggest decline of papal authority in real terms ever seen in history. Catholic priest August Bernhard Hasler d. Mark E. Powell, in his examination of the topic from a Protestant point of view, writes: "August Hasler portrays Pius IX as an uneducated, abusive megalomaniac, and Vatican I as a council that was not free. Hasler, though, is engaged in heated polemic and obviously exaggerates his picture of Pius IX. Accounts like Hasler's, which paint Pius IX and Vatican I in the most negative terms, are adequately refuted by the testimony of participants at Vatican I.
Those opposed to papal infallibility such as Geisler and MacKenzie  say that it is contrary to Scripture and to the teaching of the early Church. The dogma of papal infallibility is rejected by Eastern Orthodoxy.
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Orthodox Christians hold that the Holy Spirit will not allow the whole Body of Orthodox Christians to fall into error  but leave open the question of how this will be ensured in any specific case. Eastern Orthodoxy considers that the first seven ecumenical councils were infallible as accurate witnesses to the truth of the gospel, not so much on account of their institutional structure as on account of their reception by the Christian faithful. Additionally, Orthodox Christians do not believe that any individual bishop is infallible or that the idea of papal infallibility was taught during the first centuries of Christianity.
Orthodox historians often point to the condemnation of Pope Honorius I as a heretic by the Sixth Ecumenical council as a significant indication. However, it is debated whether Honorius' letter to Sergius met in retrospect the criteria set forth at Vatican I. Other Orthodox scholars  argue that past papal statements that appear to meet the conditions set forth at Vatican I for infallible status presented teachings in faith and morals are now acknowledged as problematic.
The Church of England and its sister churches in the Anglican Communion reject papal infallibility, a rejection given expression in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion :. Of the Church. The visible Church of Christ is a congregation of faithful men, in which the pure Word of God is preached, and the Sacraments be duly ministered according to Christ's ordinance, in all those things that of necessity are requisite to the same.
As the Church of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch, have erred, so also the Church of Rome hath erred, not only in their living and manner of Ceremonies, but also in matters of Faith. Of the Authority of General Councils. General Councils may not be gathered together without the commandment and will of Princes. And when they be gathered together, forasmuch as they be an assembly of men, whereof all be not governed with the Spirit and Word of God, they may err, and sometimes have erred, even in things pertaining unto God. Wherefore things ordained by them as necessary to salvation have neither strength nor authority, unless it may be declared that they be taken out of holy Scripture.
The Methodist Articles omit the express provisions in the Anglican articles concerning the errors of the Church of Rome and the authority of councils, but retain Article V, which implicitly pertains to the Roman Catholic idea of papal authority as capable of defining articles of faith on matters not clearly derived from Scripture:.
Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation. The Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation; so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man that it should be believed as an article of faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation Presbyterian and Reformed churches reject papal infallibility.
The Westminster Confession of Faith ,  which was intended in to replace the Thirty-Nine Articles , goes so far as to label the Roman pontiff "Antichrist"; it contains the following statements:. Chapter one IX.
Why Do Catholics Believe the Pope is Infallible?
The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself: and therefore, when there is a question about the true and full sense of any Scripture which is not manifold, but one , it must be searched and known by other places that speak more clearly. Chapter one X. The supreme judge by which all controversies of religion are to be determined, and all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits, are to be examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can be no other but the Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture.
Chapter Twenty-Five VI. There is no other head of the Church but the Lord Jesus Christ. Nor can the Pope of Rome, in any sense, be head thereof; but is that Antichrist, that man of sin, and son of perdition, that exalts himself, in the Church, against Christ and all that is called God. Evangelical churches do not believe in papal infallibility for reasons similar to those of Methodist and Reformed Christians.
Evangelicals believe that the Bible alone is infallible or inerrant.
Papal Infallibility: Peter and Paul Are Interdependent - OnePeterFive
Most of these statements, however, are articles of faith that evangelicals affirm in a positive way, and contain no reference to the papacy or other beliefs that are not part of evangelical doctrine. Islam stated the infallibility of the prophets and of tradition, but did not point a particular authority in present time as infallible. However, concepts of infallibility developed in some contemporary fundamentalist Islamic movements.
In the letter he argues that conscience, which is supreme, is not in conflict with papal infallibility — though he toasts, "I shall drink to the Pope if you please — still, to conscience first and to the Pope afterwards. According to F. Hollyday, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck feared that Pius IX and future popes would use the infallibility dogma as a weapon for promoting a potential "papal desire for international political hegemony":.
Bismarck's attention was also riveted by fear of what he believed to be the desire of the international Catholic Church to control national Germany by means of the papal claim of infallibility, announced in If, as has been argued, there was no papal desire for international political hegemony, and Bismarck's resistance to it may be described as shadowboxing, many statesmen of the time were of the chancellor's persuasion.
The result was the Kulturkampf, which, with its largely Prussian measures, complemented by similar actions in several other German states, sought to curb the clerical danger by legislation restricting the Catholic Church's political power. One example of the Catholic Church's political actions, had already occurred in Italy on 29 February , when the Sacred Penitentiary issued the decree Non Expedit , which declared that a Catholic should be "neither elector nor elected" in the Kingdom of Italy.
In Bismarck attempted to reach an understanding with other European governments, whereby future papal elections would be manipulated. He proposed that European governments should agree beforehand on unsuitable papal candidates, and then instruct their national cardinals to vote in the appropriate manner.
The man who fought papal infallibility
This plan was circulated in a note, in which Bismarck wrote:. The concordats already concluded at the beginning of the century produced direct and, to some extent, intimate relations between the Pope and governments, but, above all, the Vatican Council, and both its most important statements about infallibility and about the jurisdiction of the Pope, also entirely altered his position in relation to the governments.
Their interest in the election—but with that their right to concern themselves with it was also given a much firmer basis. For, by these decisions, the Pope has come into the position of assuming episcopal rights in every single diocese and of substituting papal for episcopal power. Episcopal has merged into papal jurisdiction; the Pope no longer exercises, as heretofore, individual stipulated special privileges, but the entire plenitude of episcopal rights rests in his hands.
In principle, he has taken the place of each individual bishop, and, in practice, at every single moment, it is up to him alone to put himself in the former's position in relation to the governments.
Further the bishops are only his tools, his officials without responsibility. In relation to the governments, they have become officials of a foreign sovereign, and, to be sure, a sovereign who, by virtue of his infallibility, is a completely absolute one — more so than any absolute monarch in the world. Before the governments concede such a position to a new Pope and grant him the exercise of such rights, they must ask themselves whether the election and person chosen offer the guarantees they are justified in demanding against the misuse of such rights.
When this scheme did not materialize, Bismarck accelerated his Kulturkampf against the Catholic Church in Germany. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting.
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Patriarchs compared to popes. Ecumenical councils compared to popes. Catholic episcopal councils compared to popes. Political rulers compared to popes. Existing dogma compared to popes. Objections and controversy. For the early music ensemble, see Ex Cathedra. For the film, see Ex Cathedra film. See also: Dogma in the Catholic Church. Main article: Primacy of the Bishop of Rome.
IV, Const. Catholicism portal. De Fide , quaest. Retrieved 17 February New Catholic Encyclopedia. The Gale Group Inc. Retrieved 17 May — via Encyclopedia.